[11] In other words, communicative efficiency (i.e. ELF is also used on a much smaller scale. 2006. Because of the use of English as a lingua franca in international trade and intercultural communication, native speakers of English are outnumbered by non-native speakers, which is a situation that is quite atypical for western European languages. According to some estimates, almost 80 percent of English speakers in the world are non-native speakers. Berlin: VDM Verlag Dr. Müller. Empathic doctor-patient communication then means not only mean understanding and sympathizing but having the ability to bridge the gap when patients are not willing to talk. 2005. “Exploring the third space. 2005. “The role of speakers' first and other languages in English as a lingua franca talk.” Unpublished MA Thesis, University of Vienna. 2, No. English as a Lingua Franca in Europe Today English is widely regarded as the most widespread lingua franca in the world and this is also true in Europe: English has become an intrinsic part of the European linguistic landscape and it constitutes an Timmis, Ivor. Frankfurt am Main et al. Powered by JustWatch. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 261-274. 2008 "Introducing English as a lingua franca (ELF): Precursor and partner in intercultural communication." In Mauranen, Anna and Ranta, Elina (eds.). Pennycook, A. British linguist Jennifer Jenkins points out that ELF is not a new phenomenon. Seidlhofer, Barbara; Widdowson, Henry G. 2003. “House work and student work. Seidlhofer, Barbara. It does not make much sense, therefore, to talk about a monolithic variety as such: a variety can be treated as if it were a monolith, but this is a convenient fiction, for the process of variation itself never stops," (Seidlhofer 2006). English, he suggests, will be the last lingua franca. "Seeing as the movement to bring forth the conceptualization of English as a lingua franca is gaining momentum worldwide, and more specifically for Europe, it is imperative that an analysis is made of the implications of the two differing approaches. Spoken ELF contains a huge amount of linguistic variation and non-standard forms (although formal written ELF tends to resemble ENL to a much greater extent)," (Mackenzie 2014). (2010). Tübingen: Gunter Narr. Contrastingly, Davies criticises the concept and argues that it is “inhabited” by two cultures: one is a culture of guilt ("colonies should never have happened") the other is that of romantic despair ("we shouldn’t be doing what we are doing").[52]. The French – whose language was the last viable alternative in the race to become the world’s lingua franca – are understandably sore about the triumph of English. “Exploiting redundancy in English as a European Lingua Franca”. The Complexity of ELF. This early lingua franca featured the use of invariant forms of nouns, adjectives, and verbs. [42] Thus, native speaker norms occupy a central place if English is studied as a foreign language. 2006. “Efficiency in ELF communication. 2005. “English as a global language – What do future teachers have to say?” In *Gnutzmann, Claus; Intemann, Frauke (eds.). : Peter Lang, 163-194. On 'lingua franca' English and conversation analysis.” Journal of Pragmatics 26, 237–59, qtd. Language as a Local Practice, London: Routledge. 2009. “Erasmus exchange students. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Müller. Meierkord, Christiane. 2001. “Bringing Europe's lingua franca into the classroom.” The Guardian Weekly 19 April 2001. Sowden claims that Standard English, especially British English, has a colonial baggage that still affects the status of English in post-colonial countries and it is this negative value that has led ELF researchers to an attempt to describe and posit a neutralized version of English and to make it a universal one that belongs to every speaker, both native and second language speakers. It also creates a focus on what is different rather than what is there, which moves from a descriptive agenda to a pragmatic (and, arguably, problematic) one. Klimpfinger, Theresa. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) is a term used to describe the use of English as a common language for communication between speakers whose first language is not English. It is well known that divisions between languages are arbitrary, and therefore those between varieties of a language have to be as well. Sowden argues that introducing ELF in ELT will lead to differences between schools where this is implemented, and schools which have the freedom to use a native standard model, favouring the latter. (eds.) Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Müller. [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41] Breiteneder argues that learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) often have an integrative motivation for learning and using English since they wish to identify with the culture and values of English native speakers. The Globalisation of English and the English language classroom. in Lesznyák 2002. 1996. “The discursive accomplishment of normality. British linguist Jennifer Jenkins points out that ELF is not a new phenomenon. Newcastle upton Tine: Cambridge Scholars. Is it a lingua franca or common language only for non-native speakers that speak it as a foreign language or for those that use it in multicultural settings? When you do a needs analysis, do you ask students who they use English with? The Globalisation of English and the English Language Classroom. Barbara Seidlhofer. Phillipson, Robert (1992), Linguistic Imperialism, Oxford University Press. Furthermore, he emphasises the importance of presenting this variation to learners, at the appropriate level, and he wishes that this dynamic relationship between ELF and ENL (English as a Native Language) will be central to how we view language usage. English in European integration and globalization.” World Englishes 27: 2, 250-267. Ferguson, Gibbson. ... One is the (traditional) idea that English is a lingua franca for a non-native speaker constituency which should pursue knowledge of the language as if it were a foreign language. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 109-133. The Globalisation of English and the English language classroom. That is to say, it is imperative that our understanding of how English is used in Europe is integrated with a vision of a communicatively viable use of the language internationally," (Modiano 2009). to the 'identity--communication continuum.' Prof. Jenkins is one of the most prominent figures in ELF scholarship, and has published numerous books and articles on the topic. Culture in lingua franca conversation.” In: Knapp, Karlfried; Meierkord, Christiane (eds.). This chapter will begin with a brief historical review of languages which have operated as lingua francas across East and Southeast Asia. He argues that some ELF scholars want ELF to replace Standard English as the model to be used in learning English. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) is English when it is used between two or more people who do not have the same first language. The lingua franca role of English, coupled with its status as the official language of ASEAN, has important implications for language policy and language education. [56], Use of the English language for international communication, Hülmbauer, Cornelia et al. Mortensen, J. 2002. “Native speaker norms and international English: a classroom view.” ELT Journal 56, 240-249. English as a lingua franca in the international University: The Politics of Academic English Language Policy. The approach to ELF should be more non-essentialist according to Sewell who points out that ELF does not involve a set of features or skills that distinguishes it from languages in general, as all language usage is varied. [23] In ELF interactions, the importance lies on communication strategies other than nativeness, which can lead to communicative situations where those English native speakers who are not familiar with ELF and/or intercultural communication are at a disadvantage because they do not know how to use English appropriately in these situations. despite its barbaric accretions ... or, I should say, because of its barbaric accretions. As far as Marko Modiano is concerned, there are two ways to approach deciding who English is a lingua franca for. 2009. “The lingua franca factor.” Intercultural pragmatics 6: 2, 147-170. p.161-163. 2010. Paradowski, Michał B. The other, upheld by those who have bought into the world Englishes paradigm, is to see English as a lingua franca for interlocutors who use it with others in multicultural settings (and thus see English in its diversity as opposed to viewing English as a prescriptive entity defined by idealized inner-circle speakers). 2007. “'Mind you, sometimes you have to mix'. [53] "Global Englishes" (GEs) is generally seen to align closely with ELF,[54][55] seeing that language use is variable and is very much intermingled with cultural flows, situated contextualisation, and complex interactional alignment between people; whereas the other terms mentioned above tend to be seen as more linguistic in nature (e.g., "'Globish", proposing forms of simplified English needed for communication, vs. ELF and GEs, describing what people actually do when communicating [simple or not]; and "World Englishes", generally accounting for language features and commonalities by region/group, vs. ELF, looking at situated communicative use of English). 2 What is a lingua franca? One of the key aspects of terminology used in the ELF field of enquiry is that a standardized version of any English variety is not implied, with the dynamic, situated and complex nature of language brought to the fore. [24][25], Most data on ELF interactions has been drawn from the domains of business and higher education,[26] and that in largely European contexts, perhaps factors accounting for the relatively rare instances of miscommunication. Another example is the case of Juliane House,[51] a German scholar who explains in her article "English as a lingua franca: A threat to multilingualism?" 2001. “Closing a conceptual gap: the case for a description of English as a lingua franca.” International Journal of Applied Linguistics 11: 2, 133-158. As Anglo-American hegemony withers, the influence of English will decline; but what succeeds it will not be any other single language. Most importantly, proponents of this view reject the idea that emerging insights into how English is used as a lingua franca can provide useful input with regard to the aims and methods of English language teaching. The way forward according to Sowden is to focus on communicative ability, not on universal conformity. Have you ever tried to communicate with someone who doesn't speak your language? English fulfills the need for a global lingua franca for it has spread to large areas of the world due to colonisation and the widespread teaching of English as a foreign language. 2013. For Sowden, the use of multilingual and local teachers can also be beneficial for L2 learners, as these teachers have knowledge of the local culture and spoken languages and the constraints they have on learning English. It will then review the development of English in selected Asian countries and its role in those countries today. The paper first tries to identify the areas of life where English already serves as a lingua franca in the world and those where the language faces sharp competition. Word Origin late 17th cent. The discussion goes on to show that the future advance of English will depend heavily on the motives … English as a lingua franca in Europe. Paradowski, Michał B. Cogo further cites various studies in the field that have demonstrated that ELF communication is fluid and innovative, with an emphasis on highly variable linguistic forms. One study of a Japanese Medical English as a Lingua Franca (MELF) context[31] showed that student doctors made use of empathic accommodation and solicitation strategies to make interactions more intelligible. Lesznyák, Ágnes. If English is indeed a lingua franca, it should be possible to describe it as such without prejudice. Firth, Alan. English as a lingua franca: the study of language practices. DOI:10.1080/13556509.2013.10798856. For people to adapt to certain situations, learning English has become a necessity. Language Policy Division. "English operates as a lingua franca at a number of different levels, including local, national, regional and international. English has become a lingua franca in many parts of the world. When used for international communication, on the other hand, speakers will consciously avoid the use of local and nativised norms and expressions," (Kirkpatrick 2007). English as a lingua franca. Nowadays, English is a common lingua franca across the sphere because it is used for the purpose of communication globally. Here, the speaker's ability to move away from the traditional speech patterns of the native varieties is argued to be an important part of ELF research. 2008 “Introducing English as a lingua franca (ELF): Precursor and partner in intercultural communication.” Synergies Europe 3, 25-36. [11] Proponents of ELF thus reject the notion that it is a form of ‘deficient’ English and describe ELF speakers as users of English, not as learners.[32][33]. 2005. “’I don’t think I should learn all this.’ – A Longitudinal View of Attitudes Towards ‘Native Speaker’ English.” In: Gnutzmann, Claus; Intemann, Frauke. Arbingdon, UK: Routledge. Several attitude studies on the topic of ELF have already been conducted. MacKenzie, Ian. This can be explained by reference . 2005. “Exploring the third space. Mollin, Sandra. Vienna Oxford International Corpus of English (VOICE). Phillipson, Robert. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 118-131. Synergies Europe 3, 25-36. p.27, Vienna Oxford International Corpus of English [VOICE]: FAQ. Cogo, Allessia. English has not become the global ‘lingua franca’ as a result of colonialism or soft power initiatives. Notes on English used as a lingua franca as an object of study. Changing attitudes in an inter-connected world. (2013). Applying nonverbal cues was seen as being of importance to encourage simulated patients to express concerns, because silence may be interpreted as a sign of potential problems. 2005. “’I don’t think I should learn all this.’ – A Longitudinal View of Attitudes Towards ‘Native Speaker’ English.” In: Gnutzmann, Claus; Intemann, Frauke. Sowden argues that ELF researchers encourage ELF speakers to use specific varieties of English over others, an argument that Cogo refutes by stating that researchers only use empirical data to show what happens in ELF interactions, and never to tell speakers what to use. 2009. “The lingua franca factor.” Intercultural pragmatics 6: 2, 147-170. Firth, Alan. Check pronunciation: lingua franca. 2006. “In and on their own terms. [11] However, very often they form a minority of the interlocutors. 25-46. English as a European lingua franca. Galloway, Nicola & Rose, Heath (2015). Providing a unique and original perspective on this subject, Istvan Kecskes explains the language behaviour of ELF speakers, through the lens of Gricean pragmatics. Understanding English as a Lingua Franca: A Complete Introduction to the Theoretical Nature and Practical Implications of English used as a Lingua Franca. 2005. Tübingen: Gunter Narr, 261-274. Millions of people across the world use English as a lingua franca to communicate with each other, when they do not share the same native language. Volume III. 2008, Apr. 1 LINGUA-FRANCA Iffatara Nargis STD No- Department of English Green University Bangladesh 2. Adolphs, Svenja. The role of code-switching in English as a lingua franca.” Views 16: 2, 36-61. getting the message across) is more important than correctness. Topic management in English lingua franca communication.” In Knapp, Karlfried; Meierkord, Christiane (eds.). London: Routledge. Rather, these forms do not seem to compromise effective communication within an ELF setting when they do occur. ELF is used globally in many ways, and this includes important matters of politics and diplomacy. However, these features are by no means invariant or “obligatory”. [13] Speakers accommodate to each other's cultural backgrounds and may also use code-switching into other languages that they know. Breiteneder, Angelika. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) is English when it is used by non-native speakers to communicate with native speakers. An important issue when discussing ELF is the notion of speakers of ELF being active language users in their own right, who do not need to adhere to native speaker norms but use ELF to meet their communicative needs. Recent Examples on the Web These researchers argue that quantum field theory, the current lingua franca of particle physics, tells far too convoluted a story. Seidlhofer, Barbara. • English as a lingua franca- threat to Urdu ( Dawn news article13 May 2017 14. English as a lingua franca (ELF) is the use of the English language "as a global means of inter-community communication" (Seidlhofer 2016: 20) and can be understood as "any use of English among speakers of different first languages for whom English is the communicative medium of choice and often the only option " (Seidlhofer 2011: 7).
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